Interesting perspective - so how do you categorise Neuroscience? or Cognitive Psychological Behaviour analysis, psychology? “external” or “internal” enquiry?
I am sorry if this sounds like an information dump, but it is a very big question, that cannot be answered with a short answer. You need to understand the history of ideas behind it.
Psychology is a very interesting phenomena in Western science. The father of the philosophy of psychology is considered to be Arthur Schropenhauer, who was heavily inspired by dharmic philosophy and championed its cause. His contention was that the noumenon that Kant spoke about was actually desire. That desires within us are the cause that we actually are in bondage and suffering, as long as desire remains, the world remains. Freud was inspired by this idea that there is this storehouse of desires in our unconscious and created psychoanalysis. However, Freud did not adopt the pessimism of Schropenhauer that these desires needed to be eradicated, but rather embraced desires and said that we were a desire producing machine. It is when we oppress the desires producing component(ego) using our social morality(super ego) that we cause psychological conflict. Freud thought that we could have a science of studying the mind and behaviour(i.e., psychology) and the method he used was psychoanalysis and thus highly subjective. However, as the West has a highly empirical and materialist categorical framework, they did not like this idea of a subjective science because they could not measure it. This dogma had been long laid out by Descartes and continues to effect the mind of Western sciende today. Thus arose behaviourism where using empirical research methods they could study human behaviour like the physical sciences. This then evolved into cognitive-behavioural science and then psychiatry and neuroscience. The dominant view in psychology today is the mind and the brain are the same things and the neural correlates of all mental states are being investigated and this research is intimately tied in with cybernetics. The aim is to create conscious AI.
Fortunately, the subjective sciences in the West continued on, though they were not favoured and more often than not, there was an obvious dharmic influence behind it. Husserl the founder of the science of phenomenology in the West(adopted this term from Hegel) was obviously inspired by dharmic philosophy, but did not acknowledge it. He believed we could have a science of consciousness and he adopted the same dharmic stance that reality was created by structures within consciousness. He suggested we must first get rid of all assumptions(bracketing) and observe content of the mind as it is, because consciousness itself was pure i.e., very close to Yoga. However, as Husserl had a Western categorical framework, he said we needed to analyse the contents of the mind and then interpret them(Yoga says do not analyse, just remain a witness of all content) and thus he was not remaining true to his original goal of just sticking with phenomena.
Heidigger, a student of Husserl objected to Husserl to not remaining true to his original project and created his own phenomenology. Again there was a dharmic influence on Husserl, he was heavily inspired by the Kyoto school of philosophy, but again he did not acknowledge his sources. Heidigger said that the structures of consciousness cannot be analysed, because this destroys the nature of beingness or dasein has to be understand existentially and through poetic metaphor. Hence he wrote his treatise, “Being and time” where dasein had to be understood as a historical being evolving in time.
Sartre was heavily inspired by Heidigger, but Sartre’s philosophy moved from phenomenology to existentialism. For him there was no being in time, but rather there was being and nothing(hence his treatise, “Being and nothing”) that there was a being within us that was struggling was clear, but Sarte’s contention was that there was no time per se, because this beingness never could realise its true identity. It could only project possible futures and try to attain them, but never reach realization, because every possibility that it could be could be negated by something else. Thus it was condemned to be free. Various existential philosophers arose after Sartre.
Then Yoga entered Western society in a very big way. There were already Yoga gurus in the West, but the counter-cultural movement faciliated the rise of Yoga in big way. The Yoga gurus pretty much invaded the West during this period. This lead to humanitic psychology, whose foundations were already laid down by existentialism. The human potential movement consisted and influenced by psychologists like Maslow and Carl Jung, who were incredibly familiar with Yoga philosophy and psychology. This later evolved into transpersonal psychology, which is virtually identical to Yoga. It heavily uses Yoga materials and does research on Yoga. Transpersonal psychology is considered by the dominant scientific community to be pseudoscience and quackery. This is because they have a Western categorical framework which considers subjective science to be anti-science.
In short psychology in the West has massive dharmic influences throughout its entire history. The idea that the mind could be studied scientifically has always been against Western science and even today Western scientists deny that it is possible. Yet, in dharmic culture the science of mind and consciousness has been considered the highest science and the most research ever done in this field comes from dharmic science. Even today we cite Patanjali as one of the most best scientists in the field.
By the way do you still think I don’t have a degree in philosophy