The Six Systems of Indian Philosophy


#1

The six systems of Indian philosophy are Nyaya, Vasiseshika, Sankhya, Yoga, Purva Mimamsa and Uttara Mimamsa. Each of these systems differs in one way or the other in terms of its concepts, phenomena, laws and dogmas. Each system has it’s own founder as well. It is important to know that the founders of these systems of philosophy are sages of the highest order that have devoted their lives for the study and propagation of philosophy. Each system of Indian philosophy is called a Darshana. Thus the Sanskrit word ‘Shad-Darshana’ refers to ‘the six systems of philosophy’.

[B]Nyaya[/B]

The founder of the Nyaya system of philosophy is Gautama. Nyaya belongs to the category of Astika Darshanas. It is important to know that Astika Darshanas realize the significance of verbal testimony or the authority of the Vedas. Gautama is thought to have lived during the middle 5th century, BC. He is also called Akshapada.

All six systems of philosophy lay equal importance to “valid means of acquiring knowledge” called the ‘Pramanas’. Gautama was the first philosopher to stress the importance of the valid means of knowledge and hence the Nyaya system of philosophy is said to have laid the firm foundation to the development of the science of Hindu logic. Gautama’s Nyaya system of philosophy is also called by names such as Nyaya Sastra and Tarka Sastra.

The philosophical system of Nyaya accepts four Pramanas or valid means of acquiring knowledge. They are Pratyaksha (perception), Anumama (inference), Upamana (comparison) and Shabda (verbal testimony). Nyaya, like many other systems of philosophy aims at the attainment of liberation. According to them the attainment of Moksha which they call ‘Apavarga’ is the highest goal of human life. The attainment of Apavarga brings about the end of all the sufferings of human life. Nyaya Darshana accepts the existence of God. They call Him ‘Ishwara’ and say that He is the cause for the creation of the universe. He alone sustains it and destroys it as well. One of the most important views put forth by Gautama is about the theory of creation. According to him the universe is created by God with the help of the eternal atoms, time, individual minds, space and individual souls or jivas and ether. He does not create the universe out of Himself as pointed out by the other later systems of philosophy.

[B]Vaiseshika[/B]

The founder of the Vaiseshika system of Indian philosophy is Kanada or Uluka. Hence it is also called Aulukya Darshana. It is important to know that the Vaiseshika system followed the Nyaya system very closely and hence experts in the study of philosophy often combine the two schools as Nyaya-Vaiseshika. The Vaiseshika system recognizes seven ‘Padarthas’ or categories which are: are substance, quality, action, generality, particularity, relation of inherence and non-existence. The followers of this system of philosophy also accept the existence of God and they say that He created, sustained and destroyed the universe. According to the Vaiseshika School of philosophy, the will of God is the cause for creation. Brahma is the very first product of the will of God and He does the second part of creation according to the merits and the demerits of the individual souls. He causes the combination of the moving atoms and thus is instrumental in the creation of the world. At the time of the dissolution of the universe the entire world is reduced to the primary state of the seven categories.

[B]Sankhya[/B]

Sage Kapila founded the Sankhya system of philosophy. In fact it can be said that the Sankhya system laid the firm foundation for the Advaita Vedanta later on. Swami Vivekananda once said that the Vedanta system of Advaita owed a lot to Sage Kapila, the founder of the Sankhya system of philosophy. The dogmas put forth by Kapila were further expounded by his disciples Asuri and Panchashikha. The Sankhya Sutras compiled by Kapila were commented on later by Ishvara Krishna of the 5th Century AD. It is interesting to note that the Sankhya system accepts only three Pramanas or the valid means of acquiring knowledge. They accept Pratyaksha or perception, Anumana or inference and Shabda or verbal testimony. They don’t accept Upamana or comparison. Sankhaya accepts only two realities, namely, the Prakriti or the insentient nature and the Purusha or the soul. These two are eternal according to Kapila. According to the Sankhya system of philosophy, something can never be produced out of nothing. One can see the influence of the Nyaya system on the Sankhya system when it comes to the process of creation. Pleasure, pain and indifference are derived by the three ‘gunas’ or ‘qualities’, namely, Sattvaguna, Rajoguna and Tamoguna. Sattva guna gives rise to happiness or pleasure, Rajoguna produced pain and suffering whereas Tamoguna gives rise to inactivity.

The three qualities mentioned above reside in the Prakriti, a state of perfect balance. Kapila says that the entire universe is born out of the Prakriti or the primordial matter. Purusha on the other hand is as innumerable as there are living beings. Purusha is all-pervading and eternal. He is consciousness in its very essence. Sankhya believes in the creation of the universe as a result of the union between Prakriti and Purusha. Kapila describes an interesting process of evolution of the world. The very first evolute that issues forth from the Prakriti by the combination of the three gunas is the Mahat or the cosmic intellect. Cosmic ego is born out of the cosmic intellect. There are various evolutes issuing forth from the different parts of the cosmic ego characterized by the gunas. The mind, the five organs of knowledge like the eyes and the ears, the five cosmic organs of action like the hands and the feet and the five subtle elements like the water and earth. From the five subtle elements are born the five gross elements or Pancha Mahabhutas called earth, water, fire, air and ether. Thus 24 evolutes issue forth from Prakriti or the primordial matter. They are called 24 cosmic principles. According to the Sankhya system of philosophy, a dead person will not return back to the mortal world since he attains ‘Videhamukti’ a state of final liberation.

[B]Yoga[/B]

The Yoga system of philosophy was founded by Patanjali. He authored the Yoga Sutras or the aphorisms of Yoga. The date is not clearly known but his work is of great value to the seekers of the state of spiritual absorption. Yoga aims at the final state of spiritual absorption through eight component parts, together called Ashtanga Yoga. The eight limbs of Yoga according to Patanjali are Yama, Niyama, Asana, Pranayama, Pratyahara, Dharana, Dhyana and Samadhi. All the eight are jointly called Raja Yoga. Yama aims at internal purification, Niyama aims at external purity, Asana consists in the performance of the postures of Yoga, Pranayama is breath control, Pratyahara results from the withdrawal of sense organs from the corresponding sense objects, Dharana is concentration, Dhyana is meditation and Samadhi is the final state of spiritual absorption.

The Yoga system of philosophy accepts three fundamental realities, namely, Ishwara, Purusha and Prakriti or the primordial matter. Patanjali says that scriptures are the sources of the existence of Ishwara. Ishwara is omniscient and is free from the qualities inherent in Prakriti. Patanjali defines Yoga as ‘Chittavriitinirodha’. Yoga is the restraint of the mental operations. Patanjali names some obstacles to the path of Yoga. They are called ‘Antarayas’ and they include Vyadhi (illness), styana (apathy), Samsaya (doubt), Pramada (inadvertence), Alasya (laziness), Avirati (incontinence), Bhrantidarshana (wrong understanding), Alabdha Bhumikatva (non-attainment of mental plane) and Anavasthitatva (instability). In addition to the obstacles mentioned above, Patanjali accepts five more obstacles called Dukha (pain), Daurmanasya (frustration, Angamejayatva (fickle limbs), Svasa (spasmodic breathing in) and Prasvasa (spasmodic breathing out). Patanjali speaks about Jatyantara Parinama or the phenomenon of the evolution of one species or genus into another species or genus.

[B]Purva Mimamsa[/B]

The philosophical system of Purva Mimamsa was founded by Jaimini. The Mimamsa Darshana believes firmly in the performance of rituals and supports the view that the body is perishable but the soul survives even after the death of the body and it reserves the right to enjoy the fruits of the rituals in heaven. The school firmly believes in the preservation of the effect or the fruits of the rituals by a remarkable power. It believes that the Vedas are impeccable in what they say. It does not talk about the Brahman or the Supreme Entity but says that the world is real. Mimamsa strictly is of the opinion that whatever we do in our life are not dreams or illusion but are real.

Jaimini accepts two types of knowledge, namely, Pratyaksha (immediate knowledge) and Paroksha (mediate knowledge). Paroksha Jnana is of five kinds, namely Anumana (inference), Upamana (comparison), Shabda (verbal testimony), Arthapatti (postulation) and Anupalabdhi (non-perception). Jaimini accepts the plurality of souls. He says that the souls are eternal but they definitely undergo transmigration as according to the actions performed by the bodies. Liberation is considered the highest good for humanity. Liberation puts an end to the transmigration of the soul. Performance of the daily duties brings about liberation. On the other hand the non-performance of actions or daily duties causes disruption in the path of liberation. One of the most important observations made by the Purva Mimamsa system of philosophy is that there is no need for the existence of God to create the world. This is because of the fact that all the material needed for the formation and the creation of the world are available eternally. Hence Mimamsa does not speak about the existence of God. Performance of daily duties or the Nitya Karmas is the ultimate goal of man.

[B]Uttara Mimamsa[/B]

The philosophical system of Uttara Mimamsa does not have a specific founder since it is a conglomeration of three different schools of thought, namely Advaita, Visishtadvaita and Dvaita. The philosophical system of Utttara Mimamsa is otherwise called Vedanta. All the three schools of Vedanta have different teachers. Adi Sankara is the head of the Advaita system of Vedanta philosophy. Ramanuja is the architect of the Visishtadvaita system of Vedanta and Madhva is the head of the Dvaita system of Vedanta philosophy.

Adi Sankara is the first philosopher who identified the philosophical truths expounded in the Upanishads attached to the Vedas. Jaimini gave importance to the Karma Kanda portion of the Veda whereas Sankara saw the Supreme Truth that lay firm in the message of the Upanishads. Sankara called the world illusory as a result of Maya or delusion. Maya causes the illusion akin to the cognition of serpent on the rope. A person gripped by ignorance fails to see the substratum of the universe. Brahman is the substratum of the universe. It is not seen due to delusion or Maya. Sankara calls the universe an illusion and the Brahman or the Supreme Entity as Truth. Everything around us is adventitious of the Brahman. Into Brahman all creation goes. Deluge is the ultimate condition during which the Brahman withdraws all its creation unto itself.

Ramanuja advocated the Visishtadvaita school of Vedantic thought. It is a qualified version of monism and hence is called qualified monism. Ramanuja differs from Sankara only a little in the sense that he considers the jiva or the individual soul as the entity different from the body and is infinite in number and cannot be one with the Supreme as long as it is confined in a body. Madhva the founder of the Dvaita school of Vedantic thought says that the jivas or the souls can attain liberation through bhakti and the grace of God. It is important to note that all the three teachers accepted Vedas as a valid means of knowledge.


#2

[QUOTE=Ramanuja;58319]
[B]Yoga[/B]

The Yoga system of philosophy was founded by Patanjali. He authored the Yoga Sutras or the aphorisms of Yoga. The date is not clearly known but his work is of great value to the seekers of the state of spiritual absorption. Yoga aims at the final state of spiritual absorption through eight component parts, together called Ashtanga Yoga. The eight limbs of Yoga according to Patanjali are Yama, Niyama, Asana, Pranayama, Pratyahara, Dharana, Dhyana and Samadhi. All the eight are jointly called Raja Yoga. Yama aims at internal purification, Niyama aims at external purity, Asana consists in the performance of the postures of Yoga, Pranayama is breath control, Pratyahara results from the withdrawal of sense organs from the corresponding sense objects, Dharana is concentration, Dhyana is meditation and Samadhi is the final state of spiritual absorption.

.[/QUOTE]

Perhaps you meant to use the term “compiled” instead of “founded” Patanjali only codified the existing knowledge - his yoga sutras are by definition “Sutras” which term was used to refer to highly condensed form of knowledge. The eight limbs were certainly known before his time, and there are several references to these in the old Tantric texts as well.


#3

Thank you Ramunja for this dialogue you have presented to us x


#4

[QUOTE=reaswaran;58321]Perhaps you meant to use the term “compiled” instead of “founded” Patanjali only codified the existing knowledge - his yoga sutras are by definition “Sutras” which term was used to refer to highly condensed form of knowledge. The eight limbs were certainly known before his time, and there are several references to these in the old Tantric texts as well.[/QUOTE]

This is a very good point and worth mentioning.

When we speak of yoga as being “founded” by individuals, or attempt to identify individual “systems” of yoga as different from the whole, we must place them in the context of a much larger culture and history: they being in actuality only inflections or interpretations of that culture and history and not inventions of individuals. This can be confusing to many aspirants.

Also, the fact that the Yoga Sutras are a “compilation” of past centuries of work, of various groups as well as individuals, might cause one to speculate why Patanjali was moved to take what had been communicated only orally up until that point, and record this knowledge in written form. Could it be perhaps because widespread “stylization” and corruption of form caused a breakdown of the fundamentals: divergence by individuals from those “techniques” which reproduced the desirable results most consistently? For this we must always be grateful. Likewise, it is also something to bear in mind when considering the profusion of contemporary “inventions” or notions of the “evolution” of yoga today: evolution and stylization failing yoga is why we have the Sutras today. Just an idea.

peace and love and happy resurrection day.
siva


#5

Tremendous article Ramanuja, very informative and detailed. I have been talking about the 6 schools of Hindu philosophy on this website for a long time now, so it is nice to see a comprehensive article on them that people will be able to reference now. The reason these are Hindu schools of philosophy is because they are specific to Hinduism. Indian philosophy on the other hand also covers other philosophical traditions which are non-Hindu: Buddhist philosophy; Jain philosophy and Charvaka philosophy.

Also, the term “philosophy” to describe these 6 schools is highly contentious to me. This is because philosophy is more about speculation, whereas these schools don’t just speculate, but base their knowledge on a method which brings it closer to the definition of science than philosophy. All of them accept valid means of knowledge and they are fairly identical as well: perception, inference and testimony. By the way Samkhya does not reject comparison as a means of knowledge, but includes it as a class of inference. There are three classes of inference recognized: a priori(effect to cause) posteriori(cause to effect) and analogy(effect to unseen cause) Examples:

A priori: There is fire, because there is smoke
Posteriori: It is going to rain, because there are dark rain clouds
Analogy: There is a invisible force that pushes the needle, because observation shows nothing moves without applying a force

Samkhya’s master categories of purusha and prakriti are concluded based on analogical inference. Samkhya in particular is my favourite Hindu school of philosophy because it is very close to modern physics and it is what Yoga is based on. It is my opinion that everybody doing Yoga should become very familiar with Samkhya.

Finally, I want to comment on your dates. I know that all literature you will read will cite the same dates you have given, but it is important to recognise that these dates are based on a eurocentric version of Indian history. Indian history as recorded by Indians itself would put all the above schools in the 2nd millenium BCE. It is important that this disclaimer be put in every article referencing these dates, so the reader is aware the dating issue is controversial. Indian dates have suffered from so much distortion and falsification by colonial scholars, that almost every date you see is suspect.


#6

[QUOTE=reaswaran;58321]Perhaps you meant to use the term “compiled” instead of “founded” Patanjali only codified the existing knowledge - his yoga sutras are by definition “Sutras” which term was used to refer to highly condensed form of knowledge. The eight limbs were certainly known before his time, and there are several references to these in the old Tantric texts as well.[/QUOTE]
Yes you are right thank you friend.


#7

[QUOTE=Surya Deva;58363]Tremendous article Ramanuja, very informative and detailed. I have been talking about the 6 schools of Hindu philosophy on this website for a long time now, so it is nice to see a comprehensive article on them that people will be able to reference now. The reason these are Hindu schools of philosophy is because they are specific to Hinduism. Indian philosophy on the other hand also covers other philosophical traditions which are non-Hindu: Buddhist philosophy; Jain philosophy and Charvaka philosophy.

Also, the term “philosophy” to describe these 6 schools is highly contentious to me. This is because philosophy is more about speculation, whereas these schools don’t just speculate, but base their knowledge on a method which brings it closer to the definition of science than philosophy. All of them accept valid means of knowledge and they are fairly identical as well: perception, inference and testimony. By the way Samkhya does not reject comparison as a means of knowledge, but includes it as a class of inference. There are three classes of inference recognized: a priori(effect to cause) posteriori(cause to effect) and analogy(effect to unseen cause) Examples:

A priori: There is fire, because there is smoke
Posteriori: It is going to rain, because there are dark rain clouds
Analogy: There is a invisible force that pushes the needle, because observation shows nothing moves without applying a force

Samkhya’s master categories of purusha and prakriti are concluded based on analogical inference. Samkhya in particular is my favourite Hindu school of philosophy because it is very close to modern physics and it is what Yoga is based on. It is my opinion that everybody doing Yoga should become very familiar with Samkhya.

Finally, I want to comment on your dates. I know that all literature you will read will cite the same dates you have given, but it is important to recognise that these dates are based on a eurocentric version of Indian history. Indian history as recorded by Indians itself would put all the above schools in the 2nd millenium BCE. It is important that this disclaimer be put in every article referencing these dates, so the reader is aware the dating issue is controversial. Indian dates have suffered from so much distortion and falsification by colonial scholars, that almost every date you see is suspect.[/QUOTE]

Thanks Surya, I have many of your informative articles copied and pasted into files…and now this too…


#8

These are the stuffs I ought to learn about. For long Western philosophy colonised and occupied my head. Many thanks for this informative stuff!


#9

Thank you! Very informative.


#10

Hindu philosophy is my main area of interest. Here is some further information, literature and resources to read:

The sutras of each school(darshana) with commentaries

Nyaya darshana: The Hindu school of logic and epistemology. Its main view is that the entire world is full of conflicting information and this is an impediment to one gaining clear knowledge. Thus to gain clear knowledge we must have a valid and scientific method of collecting knowledge. It looks at the categories of logic like category, class, objects of knowledge, means of knowledge, the syllogism of logic(members of a syllogism: proposition, reason, example, application, conclusion) as well as fallacies of logic and rhetoric. It is a highly technical tradutuib, but it a must read if you want learn how to reason more precisely. You should read it to understand the Hindu scientific method.

First 5 sutras:

  1. Supreme felicity/goodness is attained by knowledge of the true nature of the 16 categories vis, means of right knowledge, objects of right knowledge, doubt, purpose, familiar instance, established tenet, members, confuatation, ascertainment, discussion, wragling, cavil, fallacy, quibble, futility and occasion for rebuke
  2. The release from pain, birth, misapprehension and faults results from the succession annhilation of these in reverse order
  3. Perception, inference, comparison and word/testimony are the right means of knowledge
  4. Perception is the knowledge that arises from the contact of a sense with its object. It is determinate, indeterminate and non-erratic.
  5. Inference is knowledge which is preceeded by perception. It is a apriori, posteriori or commonly seen.

Nyaya sutras

Vaiseshika darsana: The Hindu school of physics founded by sage Kanada. Its main view is that the entire world is made out of 5 types of atoms which are eternal. In order of complexity: force atoms, light atoms, fluidic atoms and solid atoms. Sound is non-atomic and considered to pervade as waves through the akasha(similar to what we today call the quantum field) Atoms combine and discombine under the influence of a force or heat to form binary atoms. Three pairs of binary atoms combine to form a trianry atom(hexa-atom). Looks at such areas as diverse as gravity and mechanics, thermodynamics, wave theory of sound to how mental cognition take place.

First 5 sutras:

  1. Now, then, we will explain what dharma is
  2. Dharma is that from which results the attainment of elevation and the highest good
  3. It’s authority is already well known and been revealed by the vedas
  4. The highest good results from knowledge of the truth that arises from a particular dharma by means of the similarity and disimilarity of the categories, substance, qualities, actions, generality, particularity and inherence.
  5. The substances are earth(solids), wind(forces), light(energy), water(fluidity), ether(quantum), space, time, soul and mind(internal organ)

Vaiseshika sutras

Samkhya darshana: Hindu school of metaphysics founded by sage Kapila. Its main view is that matter is a uniform substance which undergoes transformations and evolves and changes by drives inherent within it(gunas) Matter exists in two states: manifest and unmanifest. When matter is unmanifest all matter exists in a potential state and in a single superpositioned state. This unmanifest state collapses when the observer observes it, causing matter to gradually manifest. It states there are only two substances in reality matter and consciousness. When matter manifests consciousness becomes misidentified with matter and entangled, leading to embodiment. This leads to consciousness incarnating over and over again, until it develops discriminative knowledge by consciously becoming aware of matter, causing the involution of matter to its original state. Looks at areas like how sense perception is constructed, subtle atoms, subtle forces and the entire mind-matter continuum.

First 5 sutras:

  1. From the disageeable occurence of the 3-fold pain(physical, mental and spiritual) results this inquiry in order to prevent it. Nor is this inquiry superfluous because there already exist means to end them, for them fail to accomplish certain and permenant prevention of pain
  2. The ordinary ritualistic means prescribed in scriptures are ineffectual because it is attended by impurity, waste and excess(i.e., religious rituals do not guarantee liberation) An alternative is preferred, which consists in gaining discriminative knowledge of the unmanifest, manifest and knower(i.e., original matter, manifest matter and consciousness)
  3. Original/root matter is an evolvent and not evolute. Mahat etc (the first evolute: cosmic intelligence) etc are the seven evolvent-evolutes; 16 are just mere evolutes. Consciousness is neither an evolvent or evolute (Mahat etc evolve from original matter and from them evolve other things, 16 elements are evolutes but do not evolve other things, consciousness is unchanging)
  4. Perception, inference and testimony is the means through which these proofs are established. From proof we establish the provables.
  5. Perception is the determination of an object by the senses. Inference is of the three types. It is preceeded by the mark or preceeded by the thing of which it is mark(i.e., a priori, posteriori) Testimony is knowledge from a trustworthy person or Vedas(used to establish knowledge which is beyond perception and inference)

Samkhyakarika

Yoga darshana: Hindu school of psychology founded by sage Patanjali. Its main view is the world is mind only, but due to many misidentications with the modifications of the mind, we have have become entangled in delusion that obscures our access to the pure mind state. Thus we must explore the structures of the mind itself though pure phenomenology by bringing the modications of the mind(i.e., thought activity) to a standstill. The stilling of the mind will automatically cause the awareness to introvert. Yoga covers areas as diverse as the definitions of mental states, the causes of behaviour, social and environmental conditioning and therapies.

First 5 Sutras:

  1. Now begins instruction on the sacred science of Yoga
  2. Yoga is the dissolution of the modifications of the field of consciousness
  3. Then, the witness is revealed in its original and true form
  4. At other times, the witness is misidentied with the modifications
  5. The modifications are 5-fold, painful or not painful

Yoga Sutras

Vedanta darshana: Hindu school of Vedic theology by sage Badaryana. Its main emphasis is on giving a correct understanding of the Upanishads and clearing up any confusions over interpretations of it. The main theory is Upanishads teach Advaita, that is that there is only one universal self that expresses itself variously throughout the universe. There are no individual selves and the entire world of multiplicity is an illusion(maya) created by our senses. The entire world is nothing more than name and form, the same consciousness expressed in different ways(a linguistic creation) This entire world will disappear like a phantom when we have transcended our senses. The translation I am linking has commentary by Adisankarcharya, and his commentaries are a delight to read. His mind and logic is brilliant.

First 5 sutras:

  1. Now begins an inquiry into Brahman
  2. From Brahman arises the entire universe
  3. Because Brahman is the cause of the Vedas
  4. It is known by the construction of the Vedas(i.e., the perfection and complexity of the Vedas, similar to the theological arguments in other religions which say the bible, quran etc are perfectly designed)
  5. Brahman cannot be known by any other means(perception, inference) because Brahman is not an object of knowledge(i.e., Brahman can only be known by the Vedas)

Brahma Sutras

Mimamsa Darshana: Hindu school of ritualism by sage Jamini. This will be of little philosophical value to the reader because it is deals mostly with Vedic ritual and how to do the ritual correctly. The philosophical portion of the text is its theories on language and semantics. Some do not consider this a valid school of philosophy. However, later members of this school produced some very influencial works on philosophy of language.

Resources:

Internet Encylopedia of philosophy: http://www.iep.utm.edu/hindu-ph/


#11

Thanks for posting this information! This is the kind of information that needs to be spread about Hinduism, instead of the information that portrays it as a casteist, idol-worshiping, and drinking-from-dirty-rivers religion.


#12

[QUOTE=Nietzsche;59171]Thanks for posting this information! This is the kind of information that needs to be spread about Hinduism, instead of the information that portrays it as a casteist, idol-worshiping, and drinking-from-dirty-rivers religion.[/QUOTE]

I guess it depends on where you get your information. LOL.


#13

Good stuff. Actually great stuff. I wish i could give you “rep points” or “board karma” points. If I could I would.


#14

[QUOTE=siva;59290]I guess it depends on where you get your information. LOL.[/QUOTE]

Right you are. I was referring to Western media and academia.


#15

The dogmas put forth by Kapila were further expounded by his disciples Asuri and Panchashikha. The Sankhya Sutras compiled by Kapila were commented on later by Ishvara Krishna of the 5th Century AD.

Ishvara Krishna wrote his own treatise called the Sankhya Karikas which was not a commentary on the Sankya Sutras. The Sankya Sutras are a much later work, around 14th century. Sage Kapila, the founder of the Sankhya school, was a proponent of theistic Sankhya which also forms the basis of Pancaratra. Atheistic Sankhya was later developed by Panchashika, a disciple of Asuri who was one of the disciples of Sage Kapila.


#16

[QUOTE=reaswaran;58321]Perhaps you meant to use the term “compiled” instead of “founded” Patanjali only codified the existing knowledge - his yoga sutras are by definition “Sutras” which term was used to refer to highly condensed form of knowledge. The eight limbs were certainly known before his time, and there are several references to these in the old Tantric texts as well.[/QUOTE]

This is an important correction, one may want to read more on this from David Frawley:

The Original Teachings of Yoga, from Patanjali back to Hiranyagarbha.


#17

Yep, Patanjali definitely did not find it. He just codified it. You find everything Patanjali wrote in earlier literature going back 10,000 years to the Rig Veda.

There is an agenda behind saying Patanjali found Yoga perpetrated by Western scholars. The agenda is to pretend that Yoga came from Buddhism and not Hinduism. As they date Patanjali in 200BCE and Buddha in 500BCE, by saying Patanajli is the founder of Yoga they want to make Yoga look like a derivation of Buddhism and not Hinduism. They tried the same tricks with the Puranas and trimurti(Hindu trinity: Brahma, Vishnu, Shiva) by placing the dates a few centuries after the common era to claim they were derived from Christianity and India learned Christianity from Thomas. Some of them even tried to make Vaishnavism look like a religion that came from Christianity.

The tricks do not end there. These same Western “scholars” have tried to prove the IVC is derived from the Sumeria religion i.e., IVC culture an Abrahamic derivation. There are still such “scholars” today.

David Frawley himself notes there is no scholarship in this. This is simply a blatant attempt to negate the 10,000 year old Hindu civilisation. To deny its history, its achivements and its legacy on this planet. Western civilisation is at war with us. Wake up and fight back.


#18

I really liked this article! It gives a good overview. :slight_smile: