[b]II, 15 parinama tapa samskara dukhaih guna vritti virdohat ca duhkham eva sarvam vivekinah
To the discriminating person
all actions result only in pain.
This pain can arise as a
direct consequence of an action,
in the form of
anguish from unfulfilled desires
and torment from the unwanted
or as a subliminal impression.
Pain can also arise as
between thoughts, vacillations
and the primal
natural forces of desire. [/b]
Swami Shyam explains that there are 4 types of pain that result from action.
?Pain that is felt as a direct result of an action? For example, the action of overeating when presented with delicious food. Initially, this action brings pleasure but then culminates in pain when indigestion sets in. If one persists in overeating, then diseases will result which will also bring pain. A second example is the continual performance of an action that brings pleasure to the point of exhaustion where one cannot enjoy anymore. Finally when one cannot perform the action, then one will feel pain from the deprivation.
?Pain as a result of imagination?. Swami Satchidananda explains that this is the pain that results from fear of loss of the pleasure. He gives the example of someone who becomes rich by investing in the stock market. The person is happy when the stocks are up but then they begin to worry that it may go down…so then they are tense until the next report. In this case, he is not truly enjoying his riches because he is afraid that he will lose his money.
?Pain as a result of memory.? This is the pain that results from the loss of pleasure. For example the person that loses his money will be sad and disappointed each time he remembers his former lifestyle.
Pain that arises from the imbalance of the three gunas. For example, ? If one enjoys because of the predominance of sattva, but then rajas arouses adverse thoughts or tamas brings on dullness or sleep, then he will feel pain? (p.59)
Swami Satchidananda counsels that the solution is to become detached from the world. This is not advice to run away but rather to enjoy the presence of pleasure but also enjoy their departure ? to not be attached to the pleasures. he cautions against running away from the world because it will only follow. ?The world is a training place where we learn to use the world without getting attached…A person with such an understanding has the magic wand to convert everything into happiness. Pleasure and pain are but the outcome of your approach. The same world can be heaven or hell.? ( p. 102)
Swami Satchidananda. The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali. Buckingham, VA: Integral Yoga Publications. 2004
Stiles, M. Yoga Sutras of Patanjali. Boston, MA: Red Wheel/Weiser LLC. 2002
Swami Shyam, Patanjali Yog Darshan, India: International Meditation Institute, 2001, 3rd. edition.